Major Schools of Psychotherapy ( Part 1 )
In psychotherapy, psychologists, therapists, counselors, etc., “apply scientifically validated procedures to help people develop healthier, more effective habits,” (APA, 2018). It is imperative to both use as well as understand psychotherapy in order to become a productive therapist, counselor, psychologist, etc. In fact, “clients undergoing psychotherapy are better than 79 percent of clients receiving no treatment,” (Sapp, 2004, p. 3).
When an individual’s mental health improves throughout the course of therapy, “it’s possible that both common and specific factors are working, and a third therapy-for example, help from a friend, improved living conditions, a distracting crisis, or the healing power of time passing,” (Day, 2008, p. 7). There are three main components that are more likely to produce a positive outcome for your client which are common factors, specific factors, and positive live events (Day, 2008, p. 8). It takes effort from both the counselor/therapist as well as the client.
Many therapists, counselors, etc. use various forms instead of just focusing on one. Understanding each dynamic is more effective for certain clients or individuals. What works for one may not work for another so to speak. In this field that we are getting extremely close, “to being able to specify which psychotherapy delivered by which psychotherapist is most effective for which person in which treatment setting,” (Nathan & Gorman, 1998, p. 12). Throughout this paper both early and current schools of psychotherapy will be discussed as well as the major types along with contributors to them and what each brings to the table. The major schools of therapy are psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, cognitive behavioral, humanistic, existential, systemic, and integrative psychotherapy.
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